effects of packaging and storage conditions on quality of spider plant (cleome gynandra l.) seed.
Introduction to spider plants (Plate. 1) It is an upright herb growing to 1. 5 m tall. Its petals are white, pink or lavender, while the capsule (silique) Green, yellow when mature, easy to crack when dry to release the seeds. Although the species is widely distributed in Africa and Asia, the range of genetic diversity has hardly been studied. In Kenya, because of the nutritional and medicinal value of spiders, it is very popular among farmers . In the local market, in many parts of Kenya, bundles of green leafy shoots and even-rooted young plants are sold at high prices . It is popular in the cultural diet and there is evidence that spider plants have a higher nutritional level than its foreign species . These leaves contain vitamin A and C, calcium and iron recommended daily more than normal adults. The amino- Acid composition of spider leaves The chemical score of protein is very high, which is equivalent to foreign vegetables such as spinach. It is reported that it is rich in nutrient-critical amino acids, such as Lai ammonia, Jing ammonia, menaspartic acid, glutamate, network acid and his . The leaves and seeds of spider plants are used in local medicine in many countries . Indigenous knowledge owned by rural women in Kenya shows that spider plants have a variety of medicinal properties . Its leaves are crushed and made into a mixture that treats bad vy and malasmo. Sap in young leaves treated with epilepsy and recurrent malaria. In order to discharge the round worm, take in the seeds and roots, apply the bruised leaves on the boils to prevent the formation of pus. Although spider plants are not in danger of extinction, they are facing the danger of genetic erosion. With the increasing pressure of agricultural land use, its ecological location is rapidly disappearing. Therefore, genetic erosion must be rapid. Generally speaking, little is known about the cultivation techniques of spider plants [, the extent and structure of genetic variation, and the seed physiology]2]. This is mainly due to the low level of national and international priority and status of this crop. It is regrettable that this local vegetable has contributed significantly to the nutritional health of many rural populations, especially those in Africa. In addition, this vegetable plays an important role in expanding the world\'s current narrow food base [in addition to Africa]4]. The main purpose of protecting the stored seeds for plant genetic resources is to maintain the genetic integrity of the preserved materials for as long as possible. Commercial seed companies and farmers are also faced with the task of extending the life of certain seed lots for future seed production and planting seasons [1 . This is a challenging task because seeds inevitably deteriorate during storage, which leads to low vitality, reduced number of surviving seeds and genetic drift . Farmers can store seeds in such a way that, in the upcoming season or subsequent season, the level of germination and vitality of the seeds is at least affected (s). Therefore, agricultural seeds need to be stored in one or two planting seasons or years. Secondly, some seeds may be stored for two to three years (or more) Used for commercial seed production such as \"carry forward Inventory \". The third and more difficult task of seed storage is to protect plant genetic resources in the gene pool for contemporary and future generations to use in crop improvement programmes. In this regard, the seeds of various species and varieties are stored for a long time, usually for hundreds of years . Degradation of seeds can be defined as an increase in the probability of a single seed unit time death with age, failure to germinate indicates seed death . However, seed aging cannot only be considered a function of time, because environmental factors in the storage process are important. As we all know, the greater the water content and storage temperature of Orthodox seeds, whether alone or in combination, the shorter the seed survival time . However, this qualitative statement has limited use in the design and management of seed storage systems, unless the relationship between Longevity ( Until the time of seed death) Quantitative description of the environment6]. Some quantifiable features, such as vitality, are changed when seed degradation occurs, and some of them are used to estimate and quantify degradation. Perhaps the most widely accepted and useful indicator of seed degradation is the reduction of vitality . Under favorable conditions, feasible seeds will germinate and grow into plants, provided that possible dormant conditions are lifted . Thus, the vitality of a seed or seed batch can be defined as the extent to which the seed is alive, metabolically active and has the metabolic response required to be able to catalyze germination and growth . Therefore, the seed that is dormant but capable of Bud during hibernation-- Considered feasible . In order to keep the seeds alive during storage, it is critical to maintain maximum quality when the seeds are put into storage . Seeds should also be stored under the condition of optimized life . The most important factor affecting the potential life of seeds is the water content . First of all, this is the reaction of the seed to the decrease of moisture content ( Is the reaction to drying) This will determine whether it is possible to successfully store using traditional seed storage methods . All seeds lose vitality during storage and lose vitality before germination loss . Seed vitality is \"the sum of all attributes that are conducive to the establishment of a position under adverse conditions \". According to a range of other definitions, it is clear that vitality is a concept that describes several features that, in turn, are associated with all aspects of the performance of germination seeds or subsequent seedlings . Therefore, the ISTA Conference adopted a broad-based definition in 1977, namely: \"The sum of seed attributes that determine seed or seedling emergence rates and performance. The seeds with good performance are called high-vigor seeds, and the seeds with poor performance are called low-vigor seeds \". The definition also specifies those aspects of the report showing changes in performance related to differences in vitality, such as: biochemical processes and reactions during germination, such as enzyme reactions and respiratory activities; Rate and uniformity of seed germination and seedling growth Study on seedling emergence rate and uniformity in the field Germination ability of seeds under adverse conditions16]. The loss of seed vitality predates the decline in vitality, so although seed batches may have similar high germination values, they may have different physiological ages and different vitality and ability to perform 15]. Separate vitality tests may be limited in Detecting Physiological quality differences between seed batches . It is therefore based on this situation that it is necessary to make a more sensitive distinction between potential seed performance . In addition, the seed vitality test can supplement the vitality test with more information about the physiological quality of the seed batch. In addition, although the seed may be feasible, it may still not be able to germinate under pressure conditions. The results of the vitality test can help identify the possibility of this standing failure . It is reported that one of the main problems of spider planting is the inability to obtain high-quality seeds . A survey found that most farmers use cans ( Plastic and metal) And polyethylene bags as storage packaging materials as they are ready . The purpose of this study was to study the effects of packaging and storage conditions on the quality of spider plant seeds to find out the best way to process and store these seeds. Materials and methods storage experiments were carried out using dried seeds above silica gel, setting four target moisture levels: 20%, 10%, 5% and 2%. Dry seeds are sealed in aluminum foil and polyethylene packages and stored at three storage temperatures: ambient temperature (22[degrees]C to 30[degrees]C), 5[degrees]C and minus 20[degrees] Three and six months. Each treatment of 400 seeds is used for germination. The moisture content is determined by 250 grains and the conductivity is determined by 100 grains. After the end of each storage period, the seeds are removed according to the storage conditions and germination and vitality tests conducted by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA). Germination test performed according to description in ISTA procedure . At the beginning of the study, then after each sampling interval, 4 repetitions were used for each of the 100 seeds. These seed repeats are allowed to be absorbed on 1% Agarwater at 25[degrees]C ([+ or -]0. 5) In the germination cabinet ( Jencons-LMS refrigeration incubatorPLS,)with a 12- One hour of light a day. Sterilinpetridishes (of 9 cm) Stone bi Sterling Co. , Ltd. From the United StatesK. were used. Before putting the seeds into the water- Agar, the seeds are sterilized with 1% sodium salt ,( Nairobi itt Colman, Nairobi) Reduce fungal growth for 10 minutes. Moisture content determination the initial moisture content expressed on the basis of fresh weight is measured by gravity in five repetitions, each repeating in 50 seeds in one well 103 [ventilation oven]degrees]C. 17 hours 【9]. The rest of the bulk pods and seed batches that are not used for drying are placed overnight at room temperature until moisture results are calculated after 17 hours. After the seeds are removed from the oven, the seeds on the plate can be cooled for about 30- Before taking its weight, for 45 minutes inside the dryer, the seed water content is expressed as: seed water content percentage = [[ Initial seed weight (g)- Seed weight after drying (g)] /Initial seed weight (g)] X 100 after each storage period of conductivity test, samples were taken for germination and conductivity test. Four repetitions of 25 seeds per storage treatment combination were weighed to three decimal places and then soaked in 100 ml of distilled water with plastic bottles. At each test run, only one control bottle containing distilled water is set. All bottles are kept at the seed science laboratory of the University of Moi at chepkoilei campus for 24 hours at ambient temperature. After soaking, gently rotate the solution and seeds in each bottle for 10 to 15 seconds, conductivity ([micro]S [cm. sup. -1]) Soak water using on-site laboratory measurements Lf conductivity meter and LF 513 T-electrode dip-type cell ( Mainz Schott Glass, Germany). Several measurements were made before stable results were obtained. Between the two measurements, dip cells rinse twice in distilled water and dry with a clean dry tissue. After subtracting the measured value of the control bottle ( Average of Reading) Each gram of seed indicates conductivity ([micro]S [cm. sup. -1][g. sup. -1]). Conductivity measurements were carried out in accordance with the recommendation of the International Association for seed testing . Results after 3 months of storage, the storage temperature had a significant effect on the vitality and vitality of spider seeds (P