simplified electronics: microphone (diy& how it works)
Hello everyone! ! So I decided to create a series of new videos and instructions in which I chose the electronic components that we use in our daily lives and I will outline their history. How they work, how they make them themselves. Some of my explanations may be wrong and I apologize if I mislead anyone to learn something that is incorrect. But on the other hand, I have to study these electronics myself in order to write these instructions, so it will help to educate myself. I hope you can learn something from my guidance as well. Also, most of the explanations in this note will be done with simple words and analogies as this is what I am able to do. Please correct me if you find any errors. Instructable is divided into many short steps to make sure it is very simple to follow. Skip them if you don\'t want to see some steps. Steps are divided in the following order: 1) Step 1: Watch the video! 2) Step 2: What is the microphone? 3) Step 3: History of the microphone. 4)Step 4- How does the microphone work? 5) Step 8: Advantages and disadvantages of different types of microphones. 6)Step 9- 21: Create a microphone. . - Step 9: materials. -Step 10- 15: do diaphragm and coil. . -Step 16- 20: set up the base and put the microphone together. . - Step 1: Test the microphone. 7) Steps 22 and 23: trouble shooting skills and sorting out words. It\'s time for some warning, because why not? I will not show you how to make a microphone of studio quality. You can barely hear my voice in the microphone, so needless to say, it\'s not really useful in real life. But this is not the focus of this version, in fact, the main purpose of this version is to get familiar with the basics of the microphone. In addition, the explanation and history of the microphone that you will read in this manual do not match the quality of what is taught. It\'s just a warning because a lot of people expect too much from me and won\'t be too disappointed with anything I do or show. In addition, I am a high school student, not a graduate of electronics, so I will definitely make mistakes. I will be very happy if you can help me correct them. In addition, many images are collected from the Internet ( Animation was made by me using a software called Anime Studio). Anyway, let\'s move on now that a warning has been raised. Most of the content in the video is included in this manual, but if you like to watch the video instead of reading it, then just watch my video! I hope it helps you in a way. Watching videos on youtube will also increase my youtube views and maybe increase my funding for future projects, so give it a try! First, what is the microphone? It is a sensor device that converts sound waves into electrical signals (Audio Signal). What is the sensor? It is a device that converts one energy into another. Pressure sensors, bulbs, and speakers are examples of sensors because they all convert energy from one form to another. So how is the microphone classified? The microphone also converts energy from one form to another, as it converts energy from sound waves to electrical signals. So it\'s a sensor. Most microphones output electrical signals, where changes in electrical signals are related to changes in sound waves received by the microphone. The microphone can achieve this task in a variety of different ways, such as by sensing, changing the resistance, changing the capacitance, etc. But all of these different types of microphones have one thing in common, with sound waves hitting the diaphragm through the medium, causing the diaphragm to move, which in turn leads to a series of events, resulting in electrical signals at the time of output. The schematic diagram of the microphone also looks like a line attached to a circle where two pins come out of the circle. In addition, the first two pictures are actually gif. OK, the history of the microphone seems complicated for me, so I have to simplify most of it. Multiple sources report multiple different kinds of information, and some sources are exactly the opposite of another. Here\'s what I think is the most credible information. Also, don\'t worry if you\'re confused about some of the explanations and names of the microphone here. I will explain in detail some of these microphones and features later. I will mark the microphone I want to describe in detail with four stars. The microphone was created to meet the needs of long-distance communication. In ancient times, loudspeakers were used to amplify the voice of the speaker in order to speak to a distant audience. Later, Robert hook invented a simple instrument called \"Love\'s phone\" or \"tin can phone. Tin cans are just two tin cans with a metal wire attached to the bottom. The sound wave vibrates the bottom of the jar or diaphragm, and the final vibration passes through the wire to reach another jar and reproduce the sound. Although it allows for the first time to transmit voice over a long distance through media other than air, its distance is still very short. As the length of the wire grows longer and the vibration becomes weaker, it is almost impossible to hear sound outside of a short distance. About 1870, when the Telegraph transmitted electrical signals and information throughout the city, different inventors began to study methods for converting sound into electrical signals, which were transmitted through wires. Alexander Graham Bell, known for inventing the phone, was one of the inventors who succeeded in converting sound into electrical signals. He created a voice transmitter with a diaphragm attached to a pin submerged in the water. Sound waves cause the diaphragm, pins, and water to vibrate, and the vibrations in the water cause different currents to flow through the wires and make sound. However, Emile Berliner created a much better button microphone in 1876 than the liquid transmitter used in Bell phones. If you look at the third picture, it says Bell. Berlin system, you can see the transmitter or microphone in Berlin on the left. Bell and Berliners have been involved in a long legal dispute over the patent. But since the microphone in Berlin produced a better effect, the patent was issued in his name, and Bell\'s company bought the patent from him for $50,000. That\'s why the Berliner\'s microphone was incorporated into the phone. In 1878, David Edward Hughes invented the carbon microphone. However, this was not patented in his name, as the carbon button transmitter patent was obtained by Thomas Edison in a long dispute between Edison and Emir Berlin. Christopher Edward Wente invented the capacitive microphone in 1917. The capacitor is a word used to refer to the capacitor, and the capacitor microphone works by the principle of the capacitor. Captain H at 1923. J. The circle creates a moving circle microphone * or a magnetic sound. Compared to the method of converting sound waves into electrical signals using capacitance changes or resistance changes, it uses induction, just like previous microphones. Today, we know that this microphone is a dynamic microphone, which we usually see on the stage. In the same year, Harry F. Olsen invented the ribbon microphone, which also took advantage of the induction principle. However, unlike previous microphones, it has proven to be several miles ahead in terms of sound quality and clarity. Shortly after launch, the ribbon microphone became the first choice for recording in the studio. But even so, no one can imagine such a wide range of microphones as they are today. The microphone at that time was bulky and expensive, and was often not suitable for inclusion in everyday electronics. Everything changed when the country of fire attacked. :):):) In 1964, Gehard Sessler and James West invented the resident microphone in Bell Labs, a capacitive microphone. It no longer needs a high voltage power supply ( A capacitor microphone with high polarization voltage is usually required) Instead, it can be compared with pre-amplifier. In addition, it is possible to make smaller resident microphones than anyone previously thought. It completely changes the microphone industry because it is cheap and easy to manufacture, making it widely used, and its small size makes it easier to fit into electronics. Now the microphone can be found anywhere, and it is cheap and can be included in almost any cheap circuit. There are four main parts of the original carbon microphone, power supply, output, diaphragm and carbon. The design has changed a lot since then, but the four parts remain in each design. The graph drawn digitally is a representation of the simplified carbon microphone. A diaphragm made of flexible film located on the front or top of the microphone. The metal plate is connected to the diaphragm. The wire extends from the power supply to the metal plate. A pile of carbon particles keeps in contact with the metal plate. The other metal plate is in contact with the carbon particles on the other side, and the wires on the metal plate extend to the output. Therefore, normally, there will be a steady current through the power supply to the metal plate to the carbon particles, then to the other metal plate, and finally to the output. However, when sound waves hit the diaphragm, the diaphragm begins to move back and forth at a very fast speed. When the diaphragm moves, the metal plate moves back and forth to compress and decompress the carbon particles during this process. Simple physics a little time. Each material has a certain resistance, and the resistance of the object can be found by using the equation of resistance = resistivity ( Length/area of cross section). The resistance at both ends of the object is proportional to the length of the object. If the length of the object increases, the resistance increases. Okay, go back to the microphone now. When the diaphragm is hit by sound waves, the metal plates move, the carbon particles compress and decompress, in other words, their length changes. As I mentioned above, the resistance changes when you change the length of the material. The same thing happened here. When carbon is compressed, the resistance decreases, and when carbon is compressed, the resistance increases. If you know, V = I/R, you will know that the current output changes whenever the resistance of the carbon changes. The change of current will be related to the sound received by the diaphragm. This is how sound is converted into electrical signals in a carbon microphone. As I mentioned earlier, the term \"condensation\" is also used to refer to capacitors. The design of the capacitor is usually very simple. The capacitor consists of only two conductive plates separated by an insulator or a dielectric material. The equation for the capacitance of the flat capacitor is capacitance = ( Electrostatic constant * area of the plate) /Distance between plates. Therefore, the distance between the two plates is inversely proportional to the capacitance of the parallel plate capacitor. Remember this. So if you take a look at the simplified drawing of the capacitor microphone, you will see that there is a diaphragm or flexible metal plate in front, just after it is connected to another metal plate. The air between them insulated them. If you remember, the capacitor is just two metal plates separated by an insulator. This microphone, and two metal plates ( Flexible metal diaphragm (back panel) And the insulator that separates them (air). So this front end is basically a simple capacitor. Now connected to the diaphragm is a wire connected to the resistor and output. The back panel is connected to the battery and then to the resistor and output. Under normal circumstances, stable power will pass through the output. But when the sound wave hits the diaphragm, it starts to move back and forth, and the distance between the diaphragm and the back plate changes. If you don\'t remember, the distance between the metal plates is inversely proportional to the capacitance. Therefore, the distance between the plates decreases and the capacitance increases, and vice versa. Therefore, when the sound wave causes the diaphragm to move, the capacitance of the \"capacitor\" will also change. Due to the change of the capacitance, the voltage at both ends of the resistor is also constantly changing, and you will get an electrical signal at the output related to the sound hitting the diaphragm. As the name implies, the mobile microphone is composed of a mobile microphone placed near the magnet. If you look at the simplified chart, you will find that the wire coil is attached to the flexible diaphragm. There is a permanent magnet near the coil, which is kept in place. Wire from coil to output. When sound waves hit the diaphragm, the diaphragm starts to move back and forth, so the coil also starts to move back and forth at the top of the magnet. According to Faraday\'s law of electrical induction, when the coil passes through the magnetic field, it senses the changing voltage on the coil. This is how most turbine generators work, they have coils moving around the magnet and generating power in the process. Similarly, in a dynamic or mobile coil microphone, when the coil passes through the magnetic field of the magnet, the AC voltage or change current flows to the output. This changing electrical signal corresponds to the sound received by the microphone. Okay, so the last type of microphone I\'m going to talk about is the ribbon microphone. It is extremely similar to a dynamic microphone that works through electrical induction. In a ribbon microphone, there is a thin metal or \"ridge\" between the two magnets, not a coil. When the sound wave hits the ribbon, it starts to move back and forth between the magnets, and the AC current flows out of the output. Therefore, in a ribbon microphone, the audio is converted to an electrical signal. So there\'s a bunch of beautiful The scientific pros and cons of the different types of microphones I \'ve talked about so far. Now that we have finished the explanation and other work, we can start to make the microphone. I will show how to make a mobile coil microphone. The carbon microphone, the ribbon microphone is also easy to make, the homemade ribbon microphone can actually record amazing sound, but for me, the mobile coil microphone is the easiest to make, so that\'s how I\'m going to show it. Just a warning in case you miss it * don\'t expect this microphone to provide a high quality recording. * OK, you need the following materials in order to make the microphone: 1) Tissue roll. ( If you don\'t have a tissue roll, you can roll a piece of paper into the cylinder. )2)Craftsticks. ( It is used to make the microphone base. Can be replaced with anything. )3)Wooden Cubes. ( Again, you can use it instead of something else like a spring or cardboard. The wooden cube will support the diaphragm)4)Paper Cup. ( We just use the hard paper in the Cup, you can replace the Cup with cardboard. )5)Tape. 6)Magnets. ( Magnets magnet works well)7) Thin enameled copper wire. Gauge 26- 32 is a good range. ( The coil will get heavy if the wire is too thick)8)A 3. 5mm female headphone jack. ( I need two heads for my microphone. Connect the microphone to the 5mm male headphone jacks of the computer. However, you can use 3 if you want. 5mm male headphone jacks instead of the female headphone jacks I use. This will make it easier to insert and record. ) Tools Needed: 1)Scissors2)Soldering iron. 3) Scrape the insulated sandpaper or something from the wire. 4)Hotglue gun (optional) So, let\'s build! OK, first of all, we need to do the dynamic part of the microphone. Take a tissue roll and make a 1 inch mark from the end. Cut 1 inch cylinder. Poke a hole at one end of the cylinder. Take a thin enameled copper wire and insert it into the hole of the cylinder we cut out before. Two to 3 inch wires through the holes. This extra wire will serve as one of the ends of the coil. Now start winding wires around the cylinder. Coil wire 150- 200 times around the cylinder. Make the coil as neat and tight as possible. Use nail polish, tape, glue or whatever you want to keep the wires in place, trust me, you don\'t want the wires loose after half-winding. After you finish the winding, leave again about 2 to 3 inch wires at the end. Now fix the coil with hot glue so the wire won\'t loose. If there is extra space on the cylinder after winding, cut it off so that there is only about 1 cm free space at the end of the tube. We want the cylinder and the motion coil to be as light as possible. Remember we left 1 cm of the space on the tube at the last step? Take a pair of scissors and cut 1 cm slit around the cylinder. Then the slit is pushed out. Our circle is done! Now let\'s do the diaphragm. Take the paper cup down first and cut a large piece of paper from the cup. Mark a 2 on paper- 3 cm larger than the tissue rolls we cut before. Cut the circle. Now, on the circle we just cut out, mark another circle about 1 cm in diameter than the tissue roll. Now cut out the circle from the cut circle. Leave you a ring. Now take the ring we just cut off, take a piece of tape and stick the tape on the ring. Make sure the tape covers the entire hole inside the ring. Cut any excess tape from the edge. Our diaphragm is ready! OK, as the step title says, we will connect the diaphragm to the moving coil. Connect the moving coil to the tape of the diaphragm. Okay, let\'s get our base now. Stick together three crafts first. Now stick a wooden cube to one end of the craft stick. Now glue another wooden cube to the same end of the craft, so the distance between the two cubes is 1/2 less than the length of the diaphragm. Now, put a bunch of magnets between the two wooden blocks we put before. Stick the magnet down This step is optional. Take another cube and drill a hole so you can screw the cube to the tripod. Then connect the cube to the craft with glue. Now take the diaphragm down and stick it to two blocks of wood. Make sure the coil does not touch the magnet and can move up and down freely around the magnet. If you look at it carefully, you will find that the diaphragm of my microphone is no longer round, and I changed it to a rectangle, although it is not necessary. Now take the 3. 5mm female headphone jack and glue it to the end of the seat. Now is the most important part. You have to remove two wires from the coil and remove their insulation. Please do not skip this step. There are many ways to do this. You can scrape off the enamel insulation with sandpaper. You can scrape the insulation carefully with scissors. You can also burn the insulation with fire. A difficult step has now been taken. Steps to connect the wires. If you remove the black rubber insulation from the jack, it usually reveals 4 wires and sometimes 3. You have to connect the ground wire and microphone wire to the two wires from the coil. It can be difficult to figure out which wires are grounded and microphone. One of the pictures shows the wiring of 3. 5mm male headphone jack. However, I can\'t find 3 pictures on the Internet. 5mm headphone jack wiring. So you need to do some checks with a multimeter to figure this out. Weld the wire to make it permanent. If you haven\'t figured out the wiring of the microphone, don\'t weld it, just connect the wire with a crocodile clip. You can test the microphone and you can switch the line if needed. We are done at last. The picture shows how the microphone looks. Plug the microphone into the computer or phone using the jack. Turn on the recording software, I used Audacity on my computer and the default recorder on my phone. Click on the recording and speak loudly to the diaphragm of the microphone. Tap the diaphragm to get a clearer response. It would be great if it worked! The build is complete! If it doesn\'t work, then look at the trouble of the next step-shooting tips. The audio recorded by the microphone in a rather large room is attached to the file. Keep in mind that I speak very carefully, which is why the sound is clear. So in the next few paragraphs, I will try to solve some of the problems you may face when making. Question 1: my microphone does not work for you as a liar! Your existence is as unpopular as this note. Solution: I\'m sorry your microphone didn\'t work but I can assure anyone that I didn\'t post false instructions. ( This happened countless times on youtube and people accused me of not working on the circuit. ) Question 2: The microphone is not working, can you fix it for me? Solution: This is a better way to express your opinions and needs. OK, the microphone may not work for a few reasons. Did you remove the insulation correctly from the end of the coil? Because a lot of times people don\'t do that, and the magic is that their microphones don\'t work either. Have you connected the wire? This is the biggest problem you can have. Change the wire, maybe you didn\'t select the ground and microphone wire from the Jack correctly. Question 3: It\'s too quiet! ! Solution: Zoom in on audio using the app (audacity). Or the problem may be the number of rolls. You can try to reduce the rotation of the coil. You can also try to use stronger magnets. Finally, try to switch the wooden cube with a spring or something else that is flexible, so that the diaphragm and more noise can be moved better. Question 4: no treble noise was received from my microphone. Solution: there is a problem with the type of microphone we make. High pitch noise has a high frequency, or a wave can cause particles in the medium to oscillate very quickly. However, since the mobile coil microphone is attached to the diaphragm due to the coil, the diaphragm is very bulky and the diaphragm is not moving fast enough to capture high pitch noise. Question 5: The microphone receives too much noise from the background and there is a lot of static electricity! Solution: This is a very beginner microphone that always suffers from simple setbacks. Most of the time it makes too much noise. However, you can keep the foam or filter in front to prevent the wind from hitting the diaphragm. Question 6: It still doesn\'t work. Solution: life is hard, sometimes it is OK to accept failure. OK so I \'ve been typing for a while now and I don\'t think I can make it last longer. So let\'s end it. I hope you find this instructions a bit useful. I hope it is simple enough to understand. I hope I have not notified you in error anywhere. Please let me know if I do make a mistake so I can correct it. Some of the pictures in this structure are not taken by me either, so the credit goes to the person who owns them. I have limited knowledge on electronics, so I apologize again for any mistakes. Thank you for reading this poorly written note.