Solar Panel - There are three common solar cells in different technologies: single crystal, multi crystal and thin film. Single-crystal and multi-Crystal cells are made of wafers cut from silicon blocks and then modified through a process known as \"doping. This includes heating the battery in the presence of boron and phosphorus, which changes the structure of silicon in a way that makes it a semiconductor. This is the same as the method of making computer chips. Once the wafers are mixed, they will have a fine array of conductive current Collect the wires applied on each side. Film technology uses different technologies to deposit different material layers directly on metal or glass. The most common thin The thin film panel is a type of amorphous silicon, which can be seen everywhere from watches and calculators to large power supplies Grid-connected photovoltaic array power generation. Flexible panel is a derivative of amorphous technology. These are made on plastic or thin metal substrates that can be rolled up or attached to a surface. They are usually used for camping and boating, but are usually quite expensive on a dollar/watt basis, although the larger panels designed for installation on buildings compete with the traditional rigid panels. In terms of material use, the crystal panel uses more semiconductor materials than the equivalent output film panel. This is because a large amount of material is lost in the process of cutting a silicon rod or billet into pieces (wafers). The cutting is done with a diamond saw, and the Blade of the diamond saw is likely to be thicker than the resulting wafer, so more than half of the silicon may be lost in the process. The amorphous panel does not have this problem, so it is possible to use less than 1% of the semiconductor material as a crystal panel. The Kaneka film module is an example. The active thickness of these materials is only 0. 3 micrometres. The typical crystal thickness is 100 ~ 200mm, this is only the silicon of the month/600, which does not take into account the silicon wasted during the Crystal cell cutting process. Why does Silicon use such a problem? There are two reasons. The first is the energy of silicon. High purity silicon used in manufacturing solar panels requires a lot of energy. The second fact is, high Grade Silicon suitable for this use is usually in short supply due to the demand for it from solar cells and integrated circuits, which makes the price higher than it should be. A small amount of silicon used in thin film panels should make them more cost-effective, and you have to wonder why this is not the case at the moment, although the high demand for solar panels is likely to have a lot to do with it! Solar panels have many different ratings, so let\'s see what they are and what they mean. Rated (peak) Power: assuming the level of sunlight, this is the maximum continuous power output of the panel ( Light intensity dropped on the panel) 1 KW per square meter. In general, the rated power of the solar panel is the rated peak power. Nominal voltage (Vn) : System voltage for panel design. The 12 v panel is designed for a 12 V system, but it will produce a voltage much higher than 12 V. Some panels can be re-routed to accommodate a six-volt or 24-volt system. Other panels are designed for the grid Interactive System with nominal output of 48 V or even higher. Voltage at peak power (Vp) : This is the voltage measured on the panel when the panel generates peak power. Maximum power current (Im) : Maximum current available for the panel at peak power. Open voltage (Voc) : No maximum available voltage for the load on the panel. For 36 units, 12 V units, this is usually around 21 v. Short circuit current (Isc) : When the output of the panel is short-circuited at the panel temperature of 25 °c, the current obtained at the Sunshine level of 1000 watts per square meter Temperature at rated power: This is the temperature at which solar panel manufacturers rate their panels. The rated power of most panels is 25 °c, which is a fairly unrealistic figure, as the panel temperature in typical Australian conditions can be as high as 70 °c. Figure 1 shows how the battery temperature affects the power output of the crystal panel. Current-voltage (IV) Curves: these are charts of the output voltage and current under different sunlight and temperature. They can tell you a lot about the ability of the panel to cope with a temperature rise and how it performs on cloudy days. An example of the IV curve can be seen in Figure 1. Obviously, when calculating the power system, the most important rating is the voltage and current at the maximum power. Panel power ratings are rarely used to calculate the system as this is a function of voltage and current. The rated voltage of some panels is slightly higher or lower than that of other panels, which affects the available electrical flow. Open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current ratings are important from a safety perspective, especially voltage ratings. A series of six panels, although the rated voltage is 72 V, can output more than 120 v dc- It\'s dangerous enough.