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ultra-thin chips for high-performance flexible electronics

by:Top-In     2020-08-03
In the past few years, with the emergence of devices and circuits from nano-structures to printed films, flexible electronic technology has made remarkable progress.
At the same time
Performance Electronics have also increased as flexible and compact integrated circuits are required in order to obtain a fully flexible electronic system.
Getting flexible and compact integrated circuits as silicon-based CMOS electronics is a challenge as silicon is currently high
The properties are flat, and the fragility of silicon makes it difficult to bend.
For this reason, Chao
Thin chips from silicon are attracting interest.
This review provides
Deep analysis of various methods to obtain Super
Thin chips from rigid silicon wafers.
The comprehensive research presented here includes
Thin chip properties such as electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties, stress modeling, and packaging techniques.
Together with several emerging applications, basic advances in sensing, computing, data storage, and energy are discussed (e. g.
M-wearable system
Health, smart city, internet of things, etc. )
They will enable.
This paper is intended for readers working in the field of thin silicon and flexible silicon integrated circuits;
However, everyone working in the field of flexible electronics may have a broad interest in it.
Flexible electronics are changing the way we make and use electronics.
Many of the existing applications, such as the need for bendability to conform to an implant system for tisues surfaces, are driving progress in the field, which in turn is many future applications (such as mHealth) wearable system, smart city and Internetof-Things (IoT).
Some government and industry initiatives have also contributed to this progress, and it is now estimated that by 2028 the market for flexible electronics will reach $300 billion, up from $29.
28 billion in 2017 for printing over $63 billion in 2023, flexible and organic electronic single. The high-
Performance, comparable to today\'s complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS)
Electronics are critical to the growth of flexible electronics, as several current and future electronics require rapid communication and computing.
For example, large drive current and fast readings are required in applications such as interactive flexible displays.
Similarly, wireless communication in mHealth or IoT (
Wearable sensor patch required for continuous measurement)
Data processing will be required in the high-frequency band
High frequency (0. 3u2009–u20093u2009GHz).
Faster communication speed, higher bandwidth and very high clock speed efficient distributed computing will make
Inevitable performance requirements in connection objects. This high-
Performance requirements investigate new materials, manufacturing techniques, methods, and design techniques
All of this affects the performance of the device.
For example, the transistor switching frequency is affected by mobility and channel length-
Although mobility is a material property, the length of the channel depends on the technology.
To demonstrate how various materials are linked to performance, we compare some of the materials used in flexible electronics in the table.
This comparison is in terms of carrier mobility ()
Channel length ()
Frequency of transit ()
, And the ratio of transistors using these semiconductor materials as current channels.
The fixed FET parameters, such as channel width, oxide capacitance, are assumed.
And the dependence of voltage, transit frequency such as terminal and threshold voltage (
Is a measure of transistor speed)
It boils down to mobility and channel length and can be written as: where is the proportional constant generated by the above assumptions. Normalizing Eq. ()
Regarding the proportional constant, the normalized pass frequency can be written: therefore, when the device has similar parameters other than mobility and channel length, it is proportional to mobility and inversely proportional to channel length.
Put the values in some recent works in Eq. ()
, The comparison in the table shows that single crystal silicon devices with channel length at the nano scale will have high, so they will be superior to most other semiconductor materials.
Interestingly, devices from highly liquid materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes and some 2D materials are slower than silicon.
Obviously, channel length or device technology plays an important role in the final performance of the device.
So instead of focusing on high
Liquid materials, comprehensive consideration from both material science and engineering is very important.
With the progress of technology, devices made of high-fluidity materials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes came into being.
In the end it may catch up and may have better performance than single crystal silicon, but since the relevant technology is still in the initial stage of development, it is still far from commercial, which is unlikely in the next few years.
Considering these facts, single crystal silicon seems to be the best choice to meet the current high temperature
Performance requirements of flexible electronic systems.
This also explains why other materials such as silicon and compound semiconductors have attracted great interest in recent years.
Nano-structures such as nano-film, nano-band and nano-wire.
Flexible electrons have been explored from these materials.
Taking into account the challenges of aligning the print of the nano-structure, the density difference of the printed nano-structure, and the difficulty of obtaining a very large size
Scale of functional integrated circuits (ICs), the silicon-
Micro-electronics technology is an obvious choice.
Technology is ready to acquire nano-sized devices and has the potential to scale device density exponentially to billions of devices per mm, making silicon-based Microchips the solution for instant high-
Performance requirements for flexible electronics.
To this end, the first problem that needs to be overcome is the lack of flexibility (
So consistency)
Silicon wafer.
This is done by refining the wafer to
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